(Born- March 22, 1869, died- February 6, 1964)
President of the First
Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and later against the United States for the Independence of the Philippines.
Born of Chinese and Filipino parentage, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, whom providence had placed as the supreme leader of his people at the critical period in their history. He was born in Kawit, Cavite, on March 22, 1869. He was the seventh among eight children of the spouses Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy.
He took up his secondary course at the Letran de Manila where he finished only three years of high school. His favorite subject was geography. He did not finish the secondary course education.
At the age of 17, Emilio was elected as cabeza de barangay of Binakayan, the most progressive barrio of Kawit, Cavite. He served for his town-mates for eight years. He also engaged in inter-island shipping, travelling as far as Visayas and even Jolo, Philippines. On January 1, 1895, he was elected capitan municipal of Kawit the first to bear that title in accordance with the Mauro Law. At that time a capitan municipal received no salary except 3% of taxes he could collect. In August 1896 he was the local leader of the Katipunan, a revolutionary society that fought bitterly and successfully against Spanish. In December 1897 he signed an agreement called the Pact of Biac-na-Bato with the Spanish governor-general. He agreed to leave the Philippines and to remain permanently in exile on condition of a substantial financial award from Spain coupled with the promise of liberal reforms. While in Hong Kong and Singapore he made arrangement with representative of the American consulates and of Commodore George Dewey to return to the Philippines to assist the United States in the war against Spain.
Aguinaldo return to the Philippines on May 19, 1898 and announced renewal of the struggle with Spain. Upon the advice of Apolinario Mabini to Aguinaldo he should change the form of dictatorship to president of revolutionary government. The Filipinos, who declared their independence of Spain on June 12, 1898, proclaimed a provisional republic, of which Aguinaldo was to became president, and in September a revolutionary assembly met and ratified Filipino independence. However, the Philippines along with Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded by Spain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris, December 10, 1898.
Relation between the Americans and the Filipinos were unfriendly and grew steadily worse. On January 23, 1899, the Malolos constitution by virtue of which the Philippines was a republic and which he had been approved by the assembly and by Aguinaldo was proclaimed. Aguinaldo, who had been president of the provisional government, was elected president.
Aguinaldo formally established the first Philippine republic. He also designated diplomats who were assigned in the major world capitals to seek recognition of Philippine independence.
In 1935 when the commonwealth government of the Philippines was established in preparation for independence, Aguinaldo ran for president but was decisively beaten. He returned to private life until the Japanese invaded the Philippines in 1941. The Japanese used Aguinaldo as an anti-American tool. They caused him to make speeches, to sign articles, and to address a radio appeal to General Douglas McArthur on Corregidor to surrender in order to spare the flower of Filipino youth.
When the Americans returned, Aguinaldo was arrested and together with the others accused of collaboration with the Japanese was held for several months in Bilibid Prison until released by presidential amnesty. As a token vindication of his honor, he was appointed by president Elpidio Quirino as a member of the Council of State in 1950. In the latter years of his life, he devoted his major attention to veterans affairs, the promotion of nationalism and democracy in the Philippines, and the improvement of relation between the Philippines and the United States.
Aguinaldo resumed his life of retirement. In June 12, 1963, on the occasion of the celebration of Philippine independence, Aguinaldo veiled his historic mansion in Kawit, together with all the relics contained therein, to the Philippine government.
On February 6, 1964, he died at the age of 95 years old.
(Born- August 19, 1878, died- August 1, 1944)
First President of the
Filipino statesman, leader of the independence movement, and first president of the Philippine Commonwealth established under United States tutelage in 1935.
Born in the small town of Baler province of Tayabas on August 19, 1878. His parents are Lucio Quezon and Maria Dolores Molina, school teacher and small landholder of Tagalog descent on the part of southern Luzon. Manuel spent the early years of his childhood in his hometown among the common people. His first teacher was his mother. He enrolled at the San Juan de Letran college, one of the leading institutions of learning in the capital city. Quezon years at San Juan de Letran as a self-supporting student brought out of his latent potentialities. He finished Bachelor of Arts degree at the age of sixteen.
He cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila in 1899 to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. After Aguinaldo surrendered in 1901, however, Quezon returned to the University, obtained his degree (1903), landed fourth place in the 1903 Bar examinations, and practiced law for a year. Convinced that the only way to independence was through cooperation with the United States, he ran for governor of Tayabas province in 1905. Once elected, he served for two years before being elected as representatives in 1907 to the newly established Philippine Assembly.
In 1909, Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines,, entitled to speak, but not vote in the U.S. House of Representative; during his years in Washington D.C., he fought vigorously for a speedy grant of independence by the Unites States. Quezon played a major role in obtaining Congress passage in 1916 of the Jones Act, which pledged independence for the Philippines without giving a specific date when it would take effect. The act gave the Philippines greater autonomy and provided for the creation of a bicameral national legislature modeled after the U.S. Congress. Quezon resigned as a commissioner and returned to Manila to be elected to the newly formed Philippines senate in 1916; he subsequently served as its president until 1935. In 1922 he gained control of the Nacionalista party, which had previously been led by his rival Sergio Osmeņa.
Quezon fought for passage of the Tydings McDuffie Act (1934) which provided for full independence for the Philippines ten years after the creation of a constitution and the establishment of a commonwealth government that would be the forerunner of an independence republic. Quezon was elected president of the newly formulated commonwealth on November 15, 1935. As president he reorganized the island military defense (aided by General Douglas McArthur as his special adviser). Tackled the huge problem of landless peasants in the countryside who still worked as tenants on large estates, promote the settlement and development of the large southern island of Mindanao, and fought graft and corruption in the government. A new national capital, later known as Quezon City, was build in the suburb of Manila.
Quezon was reelected president in 1941. After Japan invaded and occupied the Philippines in 1942, he went to the United States, where he formed a government in exile, served as a member of the Pacific war council, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the fascist nation, and wrote his autobiography, "The Good Fight" (1946). Quezon died of tuberculosis before full Philippine independence was established.
He died quietly in Saranac Lake, USA on August 1, 1944 at the age of sixty six.
Married to Doņa Aurora Aragon Quezon, now deceased. Of their three children, two are alive, they are; Zenaida Quezon Avanceņa and Manuel Quezon Jr.
Manuel L. Quezon best remembered as the "Father of Philippine Language" (Ama ng Wikang Filipino).
(Born- March 9, 1891, died- November 6, 1959)
President of the Japanese
Born in Tanawan, Batangas on March 9, 1891. His parents are Sotero Laurel and Jacoba Garcia.
After receiving law degrees from the University of the Philippines (1915) and from Yale University (1920), he was elected to the Philippines Senate in 1925 and appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1936.
After the Pearl Harbor attack. Laurel remained in Manila after President Manuel Quezon escaped first to Bataan and then to the United States. He offered his services to the Japanese; and because of his criticism of U.S. rule of the Philippines, he held a series of high posts in 1942-43, climaxing in his selection as President in 1943. Twice in that year he was shot by Philippine guerrillas but recovered, after the incident Laurel still held his post to served the Filipino people. It adds his eagerness and willingness to be of service to his countrymen.
Laurel administration did not last long because when the Japanese occupation near to collapse, Yamashita, a Japanese leader ordered his troops to bring Laurel out from the Philippines, he was brought to Japan.
In August 15, 1945, Japanese surrendered to Americans. General McArthur order Lt. Col. Turner to arrest Laurel and company for a case of "Collaboration". They finally arrested in the City of Nara, Japan and temporary jailed at Sugano Prison near Tokyo, Japan. In July 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason, but was never brought to trial; he shared in the general amnesty in April 1948.
As the Nationalist Party's nominee for the presidency of the Philippines in 1949, he was narrowly defeated by the incumbent president, Elpidio Quirino, nominee of the Liberal Party. Elected to the Senate in 1951, Laurel helped to persuade Ramon Magsaysay, then secretary of defense, to desert the Liberals and join the Nationalist. When Magsaysay became president, Laurel headed an economic mission that in 1955 negotiated an agreement to improve economic relations with the United States. He retired from public life in 1957.
Married to Mrs. Pacencia Hidalgo, of their nine children, most of them are alive and active in politics like, former vice president Salvador P. Laurel, former senator Sotero Laurel and ex-speaker Jose Laurel Jr.
Sergio S. Osmeņa
(Born- September 9, 1878, died- October 19, 1961)
Second president of the
Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.
He was born in Cebu, on September 9, 1878. Son of Juana Osmeņa Y. Suico. His birth place was a medium sized house of wood with tin can roofing. He was brought up in a wholesome atmosphere. He was enrolled by his mother in a private school of Miguel Logarta, a local lawyer-educator, not long before the latter discovered how intellectually gifted his young pupil was, later he entered the Seminary College of San Carlos for his secondary course. In 1892, he finished his studies in San Carlos. To pursue his studies he come to Manila and studied at Letran, he first met Manuel L. Quezon, one of his classmates. He took up law at the University of Santo Tomas, although his studies was interrupted by the war conflict between Spain and America, he and the rest of his classmates were allowed by the Supreme Court to take the examinations in that year of 1903, he got an average of 95.66% second placer in the bar examination.
A lawyer, he espoused the cause of independence through peaceful means as editor of the Cebu newspaper El Nuevo Dia (New Day), which he founded in 1900. Upon the return of governor Climaco from the United States, in 1904 the United States colonial administration appointed him governor of the province of Cebu and fiscal (district attorney) for the province of Cebu and Negros Oriental. Two years later he was elected delegate to the Philippine National Assembly and founded the Nationalist Party, which come to dominate Philippine political life.
Osmeņa remained leader of the Naitonalists until 1921, when he was succeeded by Manuel L. Quezon, who had joined him in a coalition. Made speaker of the House of Representative in 1916, he served until his election to the Senate in 1923. In 1933 he went to Washington D.C. to secure passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting independence bill, but Quezon differed with Osmeņa over the bill's provision to retain U.S. military bases after independence. The bill, vetoed by the Philippine Assembly, was superseded by the Tydings McDuffie Act of March 1934, making the Philippines a commonwealth with a large measured of independence. The following years Osmeņa became vice president, with Quezon as president. He remained vice president during the Japanese occupation when the government was in exile in Washington D.C. On the death of Quezon in August 1944, Osmeņa became president. He serve as president until the elections of April 1946, when he was defeated by Manuel Roxas, who became the first president of the independent republic of the Philippines.
Osmeņa thereafter retired to his hometown in Cebu, where he spent the remaining of his life, until he died on October 19, 1961 at the age of 83, with his death the nation lost a towering Molave of the race.
First wife Doņa Estefania Veloso. Most of their eight children are now deceased. One of those alive is Mrs. Paloming Osmeņa Charnley, retired in Cebu City. For his second wife, Doņa Esperanza Limjap, are Rosie Osmeņa Valencia is involved in Manila Society. Ramon and Victor live in Cebu.
(Born- January 1, 1892, died- April 15, 1948)
Last President of
Political leader and first president of the independence republic of the Philippines.
The silver tongued genius- for a genius indeed, was born on January 1, 1892, in Capiz (renamed Roxas City (1949), in his honor).
His parents were Gerardo Roxas Sr. and Rosario Acuna. After graduating his early education in the public school of Capiz. He went to Hong Kong to study for sometime, later he transferred to Manila High School to finish his secondary course. He took up law at University of the Philippines and graduated in 1913.
In 1913 to 1916, after his bar exam whom he got 1st placer, he then became professor at the Philippine Law School and National University. Upon learning the excellent records of Roxas former chief justice Cayetano S. Arellano, offered him to be his secretary of the Supreme Court.
Roxas began his political career in 1917 as a member of the municipal council of his hometown Capiz in Panay Island. He was governor of the province of Capiz in 1919-1921 and was then elected to the Philippine House of Representative, subsequently serving as Speaker of the House and a member of the Council of State. In 1923 he and Manuel Quezon, the president of the senate, resigned in protest from the Council of State when the U.S. governor-general (Leonard Wood), began vetoing bills passed by the Philippine legislature. In 1932 Roxas and Sergio Osmeņa, the Nacionalista Party leader, led the Philippine independence mission to Washington D.C., where they influenced the passage of teh Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. Roxas was later opposed by Quezon, who held that the act compromised future Philippine independence; the Nacionalista Party was split between them on this issue. In 1934, however, Roxas was a member of the convention that drew up a constitution under the revised Philippine Independence and Commonwealth Act (Tydings McDuffie Act). Roxas also served as Secretary of Finance in the Commonwealth government (1938-1940).
During World War II Roxas served in the pro-Japanese government of Jose Laurel by acquiring supplies of rice for the Japanese Army. Although a court was established after the war to try collaborators, Roxas was defended by his friend General Douglas McArthur. Roxas was elected president of the commonwealth in 1946 as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party (which became the Liberal Party), and when independence was declared on July 4 he became the first president of the new republic.
Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation funds from the United States after independence, he was forced to concede military bases (23 of which were leased for 99 years), trade restriction for the Philippine citizens, and special privileges for U.S. property owner and investor. His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing Hukbalahap (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection.
Roxas did not stay long in office because of heart attack upon a speech in an occassion in the Clark Air Base in April 15, 1948 and was succeeded by his vice president Elpidio Quirino.
Manuel Roxas bereaved wife Doņa Trinidad de Leon and children Ruby and Gerardo Roxas who became congressman, senator, and a leader of Liberal Party.
He died at the age of 44.
Married to Doņa Trinidad de Leon Roxas. Who is very active in the Philippine society. Their two children Ruby, who is active and involved in functions commemorating the memory of her late father and former senator Gerry Roxas, their only son, died several years ago.
(Born- November 16, 1890, died- February 28, 1956)
Second President, Third Republic
of the Philippines
He was born on November 16, 1890 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.
After obtaining a law degree from the University of the Philippines in 1915, Quirino practiced law until he was elected as member of Philippine House of Representative in 1919-25 and as senator in 1925-1931. In 1934 he was a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington D.C., headed by Manuel Quezon, which secured the passage in Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, setting the date for Philippine independence as July 4, 1946. He was also elected to the convention that drafted a constitution for the new Philippine Commonwealth. Subsequently he served as secretary of finance and secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth government.
After World War II, Quirino serve as secretary of state and vice president under the first president of the independence Philippines, Manuel Roxas. When Roxas died on April 15, 1948, Quirino suceeded to the presidency. The following years, he was elected president for a four-year term on the Liberal Party ticket, defeating the Nacionalista candidiate.
President Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the Communist led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, the Communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and when Quirino's negotiation with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government. By 1950 the Huks had gained control over a considerable portion of national defense to suppress the insurrection.
Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved; Quirino's administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. The 1949 election, which he had won, were among the most dishonest in the country's history. Magsaysay, who had been largely successful in eliminating the threat of the Huk insurgents, broke with Quirino on the issue of corruption, campaigning for clean elections and defeating Quirino as the Nacionalista candidate in the presidential election of 1953. Subsequently, Quirino retired to private life, in his new country home in Novaliches where he died of heart attack on February 28, 1956. His bereaved wife Alicia Syguia and children Tomas, Victoria and victims of Massacre of World War II: Armando, Norma and Fe. His wife Alicia also died during World War II and already dead when Quirino become president. Of their children only Victoria is alive and re-married to Paco Delgado.
Quirino died at the age of 66.
(Born- August 31, 1907, died- March 17, 1957)
Third President of the Third
Republic of the Philippines
He was born in the capital of Iba, Zambales on August 31, 1907. His parents are Exequel Magsaysay and Perfecta Del Fiero.
Magsaysay finished his elementary at the Castillejos, However his secondary course at the Zambales Academy both in his hometown Zambales.
Though most Philippine political leaders were of Spanish descent, Magsaysay was of Malay stock, like most of the common people. He took up mechanical engineering at University of the Philippines but ended up with a commerce degree from Jose Rizal College in Manila in 1933 and became general manager of a Try-Tran transportation company before starting as a mechanic. After serving as a guerrilla leader on Luzon during World War II, he was appointed military governor of his home province, Zambales, by MacArthur, when the United States recaptured the Philippines. He served two terms (1946-50) as a Liberal Party congressman for Zambales, his first experience in politics.
President Elpidio Quirino appointed Magsaysay secretary of defense to deal with the threat of the Huks, whose leader, Luis Taruc, in February 1950 established a People's Liberation Army and called for the overthrow of the government. Magsaysay then carried out until 1953 one of the most successful anti-guerrilla campaigns in modern history. Realizing that the Huks could not survive without popular support, he strove to win the trust of the peasants by offering land and tools to those who came over to the government side and by insisting that army units treat the people with respect. Reforming the army, he dismissed corrupt and incompetent officers and emphasized mobility and flexibility in combat operations against the guerrillas. By 1953, Huks were no longer a serious threat, but Magsaysay's radical measures had made many enemies for him within the government, compelling him to resign on February 28, when he charge the Quirino administration with corruption and incompetence.
Although Magsaysay was a Liberal, the Nacionalista Party successfully backed him for the presidency against Quirino in the 1953 elections, winning the support of Carlos P. Garcia, who had organized a third party. Magsaysay promised reform in every segment of Philippine life, but he was frustrated in his efforts by a conservative congress that represented the interest of the wealthy. Despite initial support of Congress in July 1955.
Magsaysay was unable to pass effective land reform legislation; government indifference to the plight of the peasants then undid most of his good work in gaining the support of the people against the Huks. Neverthless, he remained extremely popular and had a well deserve reputation for incorruptibility.
In foreign policy, Magsaysay remained a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which was established in Manila on September 8, 1954. Before the expiration of his term as president, Magsaysay was killed when his airplane crashed at Mount Pinatubo in the early morning of March 17, 1957, he was succeeded by the vice president, Carlos P. Garcia. The nation was shocked upon learning of Magsaysay sudden death, most of the Filipino people mourned because the nation lost a well loved leader, who in his lifetime become a legendary figure in Philippine politics.
He left his bereaved wife Luz Banzon, children Teresita, Milagros Magsaysay Valenzuela and Ramon Magsaysay Jr., a proclaim winner in May 8, 1995 Senatorial election.
Magsaysay died at the age of 50 years old.
(Born- November 4, 1896, died- June 14, 1971)
Fourth President of the Third
Republic of the Philippines
After graduating from Philippine Law School in Manila in 1923, he was among the top ten in the bar examination. He became successively, a school teacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then senator (1941-1953).
Garcia was the one who commissioned the Philippine rehabilitation at war damage claims in 1945 in the United States. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Garcia was active in the resistance movement. He was elected vice president on the ticket of the Nacionalista Party in 1953 and was also minister of foreign affairs (1953-1957). He became president of the Philippines in March 1957 for eight months, upon the death of president Ramon Magsaysay, and was elected to a full four-year term the same year (The noisiest and the most expensive in Philippine history). He maintained the strong tradition ties with the United States and sought closer relation with non-communist Asian countries. In the election of November 1961 he was defeated by the vice president Diosdado Macapagal.
He left his bereaved wife, Leonila Dimataga and the only daughter Linda Garcia Campus.
He died on June 14, 1971 at the age of seventy five (75).
(Born- September 28, 1910)
Fifth President of the Third
Republic of the Philippines
He was born in Barrio San Nicolas, Lubao, Pampanga, on September 28, 1910. His parents are Urbano Macapagal and Romana Pangan, their family was a middle class and a law abiding citizen, Macapagal pursue his studies in order to reach his goal in the future.
Nevertheless, Macapagal finish his elementary at the Lubao Elementary School, he received an honor of being the valedictorian and in 1929 in the Pampanga High School for his secondary course, he is the salutatorian.
He entered Philippine Law School to get his law degree.In this law school he become well-known as the best orator and debater. After two years he transferred to the University of Sto. Tomas.
After receiving his law degree, Macapagal was admitted to the bar in 1936. During World War II, he practiced law in Manila and aided the anti-Japanese resistance. After the war he worked in a law firm and in 1948 served as second secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C. The following year was elected to a seat in the Philippine House of Representatives, serving until 1956. During this time he was Philippine representative to the United Nations General Assembly three times. From 1957 to1961, Macapagal was a member of the Liberal Party and vice president under Nacionalista President Carlos P. Garcia. In the 1961 elections, however he ran against former president Carlos P. Garcia forging a coalition of the Liberal and progressive parties and making a crusade against corruption a principal element of his platform. He was elected by a wide margin.
While president, Diosdado Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He placed the Peso in the free currency-exchange market, encouraged wealthiest families, which cost the treasury millions of pesos yearly. His reforms, however, were crippled by a House Representatives and Senate dominated by the Nacionalistas, and he was defeated in the 1965 elections by Ferdinand E. Marcos.
Macapagals administration (1961 - 1965) is best remembered for resetting the date of the celebration of Philippine Independence Day from July 4 when the U.S. turned over the reins of government in 1946 to the more correct date of June 12 when Aguinaldo declared independence in 1898.
In 1972 he chaired the convention that drafted the 1973 constitution only to question in 1981 the validity of its ratification. In 1979 he organized the National Union for Liberation as an opposition party to the Marcos regime. He had two children from first wife Purita dela Rosa (deceased); Maria Cielo and Arturo. For his second wife Doņa Evangeline Macaraeg Macapagal, their children are Maria Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a winner in the 1995 senatorial race and Diosdado Macapagal Jr. who served the government under Corazon's administration.
As of this writing (February 1996) Macapagal is still alive and a regular writer/columnist in a leading newspaper. In his retirement, although he still heartily and devoted a good part of his time to reading and writing.
The good president always remembered those past days serving his country with love and honor with peace in his heart.
(Born- September 11, 1917, Died- September 28, 1989)
Sixth President of the Third
Republic of the Philippines
He was born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte on September 11, 1917. His parents are; Don Mariano Marcos and Doņa Josefa Edralin. His father is a politician, while his mother is a teacher in their hometown.
Marcos attended school at the age of five years old in Sarrat Central School, later he transferred to Manila. According to his scholastic records, Marcos always got an honor from his elementary and secondary course. He is best in oratory speeches as well as in debate and declamatory speeches.
Marcos attended school in Manila and studied law in the late 1930s at the University of the Philippines, in Quezon City. Tried for the assassination in 1933 of a political opponent of his politician father, Marcos was found guilty in November 1939. But he argued his case on appeal to the Philippine Supreme Court, acquittal a year later. He become a trial lawyer in Manila. During World War II he served as an officer with the Philippine Armed Forces. Captured by the Japanese, he survived the Death March from Bataan to Central Luzon and then escaped. Marcos subsequent claims to being an important leader in the Filipino guerrilla resistance movement were a central factor in his later political success, but U.S. government archives revealed that he actually played little or no part in anti-Japanese activities during 1942-45.
From 1946 to 1947 Marcos was a technical assistant to Manuel Roxas, the first president of the independent Philippine Republic. He was a member of House of Representatives (1949-1959) and of the Senate (1959-1965). Serving as Senate President (1963-1965). In 1965, Marcos, who was a prominent member of the Liberal Party founded by Roxas, broke with it after failing to get his party's nomination for president. He then ran as the Nationalist Party candidate for president against the Liberal president, Diosdado Macapagal. The campaign was expensive and bitter. Marcos won and was inaugurated as president. On December 30, 1969, Marcos was reelected, the first he had made progress in agriculture, industry, and education. Yet his administration was troubled by increasing student demonstrations and violent urban-guerilla activities.
On September 21, 1972, Marcos imposed martial law. Holding that communist and subversive forces precipitated the crisis, he acted swiftly; opposition politicians were jailed and the armed forces became an arm of the regime. Opposed by political leaders- notably Benigno Aquino Jr., who was jailed and held in detention for almost eight years, Marcos was also criticized by church leaders and others. In the provinces Maoist communists (New Peoples Army) and Muslim separatist undertook guerrilla activities intended to bring down the central government.
Under Martial Law the president assumed extraordinary powers, including the suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus. Marcos announce the end of Martial Law in January 17, 1981 but still ruled in an authoritarian fashion thereafter under various constitutional formats. He won election to the newly created post of president against only token opposition in June 1981.
Marcos wife from 1954 was Imelda Romualdez Marcos, a former beauty queen. Imelda became a powerful figure in her own right after her husband instituted martial law in 1972. She was frequently criticized for her appointment of relatives to lucrative government and industrial position while she held the post of Governor of Metropolitan Manila (1975-1986) and Minister of Human Settlements and Ecology (1979-1986).
Marcos later years in power were marred by rampant government corruption, economic inequalities between the rich and the poor, and the steady growth of a communist guerrilla insurgency active in the rural areas of the Philippines innumerable islands.
By 1983 Marcos health was beginning to fall, and opposition to his rule was growing. Hoping to present an alternative to both Marcos and the increasingly powerful New Peoples Army. Benigno Aquino Jr. return to Manila on August 21, 1983, only to be shot dead as he stepped off the plane. The assassination was probably the work of the government and touch off massive anti-government protest. An independent commission appointed by Marcos concluded in 1984 that high military officers were responsible for Aquino's assassination. To reassert his mandate, Marcos called for presidential election to be held in 1986. But a formidable political opponent soon emerged in Aquino's widow, Corazon C. Aquino, who became the presidential candidate of the opposition. It was widely asserted that Marcos managed to defeat Aquino and retain the presidency in the election of February 7, 1986, only through massive voting fraud on the part of his supporters. Marcos held to his presidency as the Philippine military split between supporters of his and of Aquino's legitimate right to the presidency. A tense stand off (EDSA Revolution, People's Power) that ensued between the two sides ended only when Marcos fled the country on February 25, 1986 at United States urging, and went into exile in Hawaii, USA.
Evidence subsequently emerged that during his year in power, Marcos, his family, and his close associates had looted the Philippines economy of billions of dollars through embezzlements and other corrupt practices. Marcos and his wife were subsequently indicted by the U.S. government on racketeering charges. After a trial a year later, Imelda won acquittal by the board of jury. Imelda return to the Philippines to face the charges against her and her family.
Marcos died on September 28, 1989 at Waikiki, Hawaii. His bereaved wife, Imelda R. Marcos and children Imee Marcos Manotoc, Irene Marcos Araneta and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., a former congressman of Ilocos Sur and a senatorial candidate in May 8, 1995 election. He serve as congressman under Ramos administration.
Ferdinand Marcos died at the age of seventy two (72).
(Born- January 25, 1933, Died- August 1, 2009)
Seventh and First Woman
President of the Republic of the Philippines
Corazon "Cory" Aquino, the first woman to become president of the Philippines, was born in Tarlac on January 25, 1933. Her parents are Don Jose Cojuangco and Doņa Demetria Sumulong. Cory was the sixth among the eight children of the Sumulong. Corazon Aquino's children are Maria Elena Aquino, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Eliza, Noynoy and Kris Aquino, her youngest child is a TV and movie personality.
Corazon Cojuangco was born into a wealthy, politically prominent family based in Tarlac province, north of Manila. In 1946, her family left for the U.S. and she enrolled at Ravenhill Academy in Philadelphia. She finished her junior and senior years at Notre Dame College in New York. She entered Mount Saint Vincent College in New York City in 1949 where she finished a Bachelor of Arts, major in French. In 1953, she returned to the Philippines to take up law at the Far Eastern University, but then abandoned further studies in 1955 to marry Benigno Aquino, who was then a promising young politician. Cory remained in the background during her husband's subsequent career, rearing their five children at home and later in exile. Her husband was assassinated upon his return to the Philippines in August 1983.
When Ferdinand Marcos unexpectedly called for presidential election in February 1986, Corazon Aquino become the unified opposition's candidate for the presidency. Though she was officially reported to have lost the election to Marcos, Aquino and her supporters challenged the results, charging widespread voting fraud. High officials in the Philippines military soon publicly renounced Marcos continued rule and proclaimed Aquino the Philippines rightful president. On February 25, 1986, both Aquino and Marcos were inaugurated as president by their respective supporters but that same day Marcos fled the country.
In March 1986 she proclaimed a provisional constitution and soon thereafter appointed a commission to write a new constitution. The resulting document was ratified by a landslide popular vote in February 1987. In spite of her continuous popular support, Aquino faced an ongoing outcry over economic injustice, a problem that was only exacerbated by continuing warfare between the communist insurgency and a military whose loyalties to Aquino were uncertain. In general, her economic policies were criticized for being mixed or faltering in the face of mass poverty.
Aquino children are Maria Elena Aquino, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Eliza, Noynoy and Kris Aquino. Her youngest child is a TV & movie personality.
(Born- March 18, 1928)
8th President of the Republic of the
Fidel V. Ramos was born in Lingayen, Pangasinan on February 8, 1928. His parents are Narciso Ramos (A lawyer, a crusading journalist, a legislator and later, secretary of foreign affairs) and Angela Valdez Ramos. Fidel V. Ramos have two sisters, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani and Gloria Ramos de Rodda, a diplomat.
Become a Valedictorian of his graduating class at the Lingayen Elementary School in Maniboc, Lingayan, Pangasinan, he was the consistent valedictorian of his class, through his elementary grades and through his high school at the University of the Philippines.
In the year 1950, Fidel V. Ramos graduated in the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, a well know military school in the U.S.A. He also acquired his master in Civil Engineering course at the University of Illinois in the year 1951. Another course in associate Infantry Company Officers at Fort Benning at Fort Bragg. In the year 1960 he was the topnotcher of all the 21 graduated for the "Special Forces/Pay Operations/Airborne." Aside from those courses, he took up Command and General Staff at Fort Santiago year 1965, where he became the topnotcher of all 48 graduating students.
During the administration of President Marcos, Fidel V. Ramos became the Presidential assistant of military tactics. (1968-1969); Assistant to the head of State of the Civil Defense July 1, 1969- Nov. 6, 1970. Head of the Intelligence Services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and Deputy Chief of Staff for Home Defense Activities (1971-1981).
Moreover, he become a delegate of the Philippines to other countries such as: Delegation for the third conference of the Association fo Southeast Asian Nations, held at Malaysia (1969) and the Ministerial conference of Southeast Asian Nations held at Kuala Lumpur (Nov. 1971).
According to his record, FVR receives award, medal and honor for his achievements in Korea and Vietnam. Known for his disciplinarian method in his troop but has a good faith in his heart.
In his administration the good President look forward the dream for the Philippines as an industrialized country towards the year 2000. He also emphasizes for the rebels who are willing to surrender, to achieved the real peace and order in the country.
The Ramos Administration intensify to complete the Program such as; school buildings, roads and bridges, country wide development, country's infrastructure program for Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and inviting foreign investors to put up business in the country to help the Filipino People.
Ramos married Amelita Martinez on October 21, 1953. They had five children.
Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Joseph Ejercito Estrada was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo, Manila. He is the eight of the ten children of Emilio Ejercito and Maria Marcelo. His family later moved to San Juan, Rizal (now part of Metro Manila) where he grew up.
Estrada studied at Ateneo de Manila University. He took up engineering at the Mapua Institute of Technology, on his second year he moved to the Polytechnic College of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila. Before he could finish engineering he quit school and decided to try the movies.
Displeased with his decision to drop out of college, his parents forbade him to use his family name, which forced him to adopt "Estrada" as a screen name and "Erap" ("pare" or friend spelled backward) as a nickname.
During his movie career, he played the lead role in more than hundred movies and produced more then 70 films. In 1974, he founded the Movie Workers Welfare Fund (MOWELFUND) that provides movie industry workers with financial and professional assistance. He was the first FAMAS Hall of Fame awardee for Best Actor (1981) and also became a Hall of Fame awardee as a Producer(1983).
Estrada entered politics when he ran for mayor of San Juan in 1968. He was only proclaimed mayor in 1969, after he won an electoral protest against Dr. Braulio Sto. Domingo. As mayor (1969-1986), Estrada was named one of the Ten Outstanding Young Men (TOYM) in Public Administration (1972). He was also named Most Outstanding Mayor and Foremost Nationalist (1972), and most outstanding Metro Manila Mayor (1972). He won a seat in the Senate in 1987. At the Senate, he chaired a Committee on Cultural Minorities and Rural Development and co-chaired the committees on Health, Natural Resources and Ecology, and Urban Planning. On September 16, 1991, he voted for the rejection of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Security, which ended the stay of the United States military bases in the Philippines.
He was elected Vice President in 1992. He was appointed chairman of the Presidential Anti-Crime Commission (PACC).
He was elected President of the Philippines in 1998 but the EDSA II Revolution cut his 6-year term short on January 20, 2001.
He is married to Luisa Pimentel, with whom he has three children.
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(Born- April 5, 1947)
Tenth President of the Republic of the
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo or GMA was born on April 5, 1947. His parents were former President Diosdado Macapagal and Dra. Eva Macaraeg. She grew up in Iligan City.
GMA finished high school as Valedictorian at the Assumption College. She studied at the Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. but she stopped during her third year, when she got married to Jose Miguel Tuazon Arroyo.
She finished her course in Commerce at Assumption College, graduating Magna Cum Laude. She took her Masters Degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University and her Doctorate Degree at the University of the Philippines. She worked as an assistant secretary to President Cory Aquino in 1986, and was later appointed as Undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry.
GMA was elected Senator in 1992, and was re-elected in 1995. In 1998, She was elected vice-president of the Philippines, with Joseph Estrada as President. She was appointed as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, but gave up the position in October 2000 when there was a public clamor for the resignation of President Estrada. when some of the top officials of government and Armed Forces of the Philippines withdrew their support for President Estrada who was forced to leave Malacaņang on January 21, 2001. GMA was sworn in as the new President. She chose Senator Teofisto Guingona as Vice-President.
Estrada criticized the legitimacy of GMA's presidency, however it was affirmed by the Supreme Court. She served the unfinished term of Estrada. In 2004, she ran for President and won against the popular actor, Fernando Poe Jr.
In November 2009, Macapagal-Arroyo formally declared her intention to run for Congresswoman in the 2nd district of Pampanga. She is the 2nd Philippine President after Jose P. Laurel to pursue a lower office in the government after his presidency. Her term as President was finished on June 30, 2010.
Gloria Makapagal-Arroyo married Jose Miguel Tuazon Arroyo in 1968. They have three children Mikey, Luli and Dato.
Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III
(Born- February 8, 1960)
President of the Republic of the Philippines
Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8, 1960. His parents were former Sentor Benigno Aquino Jr. and former President Corazon C. Aquino.
Aquino finished his elementary, high school and college education at the Ateneo de MAnila where he obtained a bachelor's degree in Economics in 1981. After college, his family left the Philippines to live in the United State of America, because his father, who was then detained for charges of rebellion by the government of President Ferdinand Marcos, was permitted to seek treatment in the United States. Aquino and his family returned to the Philippines in 1983, after his father was assassinated at Manila International Airport. In 1986, his mother became president after the historic "People Power Revolution".
In 1983, after his return to the Philippines, Aquino worked in private corporations until 1993. From 1993 to 1998, Aquino worked for the Central Azucarera de Tarlac.
In 1998 Aquino ran for Congressman and served as representative of the 2nd District of Tarlac until 2007. As Congressman, he passed laws enhancing the effectiveness of public offices and improving the rights of workers and consumers. In May 2007, Noynoy was elected Senator.
When his mother died in 2009, there where calls for him to run for President of the Philippines. To convince him, a million signatures were gathered by Edgardo Roces.
On May 10, 2010, Aquino won the Presidential elections. He took his oath of office on June 30, 2010.
Some of the laws that he immediately signed were the banning of the use of siren or "wangwang" in the streets for no serious reason, and the voiding of "midnight appointments" in government positions. He also established the "Truth Commission" to investigate graft and corruption, and abuses of the government of Pres. Gloria Arroyo.
Aquino is the third president to use his
second given name, Simeon, as his middle initial, as Manuel L.
Quezon and Jose P. Laurel. He is one of the younger elected
presidents after Emilio Aguinaldo (29 years old when elected), Ramon
Source: The Presidents, Republic of the Philippines by Rheno A. Velasco. 1996. National Book Store 2009-2011.
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